In order to implement the principles of gender equality in all spheres of society, I hereby DECREE:
1. To approve the appended Concept of family and gender policies in the Republic of Kazakhstan until 2030 (hereinafter referred to as the Concept).
2. The Government of the Republic of Kazakhstan shall develop and approve an Action Plan for implementation of the Concept (hereinafter referred to as the Plan) within three months.
3. Central state and local executive bodies and organizations shall take measures to implement the Plan.
4. Control over execution of this Decree shall be entrusted to the Presidential Administration of the Republic of Kazakhstan.
5. This Decree shall enter into force on the day it is signed.
|the Republic of Kazakhstan||N.Nazarbayev|
by Decree № 384
of the President of the
Republic of Kazakhstan
as of December 6, 2016
of family and gender policies in the Republic of Kazakhstan until 2030
List of Contents
1. Analysis of the current situation. Key issues and major accomplishments
1.1. Accomplishments and current issues in the field of family policy
1.2. Accomplishments and current issues in the field of gender policy
2. Vision for the development of family and gender policies in the Republic of Kazakhstan until 2030
2.1. Models of accomplishing family and gender policies in foreign states
2.2. Basic principles in and approaches to the development of family and gender policies in the Republic of Kazakhstan until 2030
3. Goals, objectives, period of implementation and target indicators of the Concept
4. Strategy for the implementation of family and gender policies in Kazakhstan
4.1. Family policy implementation strategy
4.2. Gender policy implementation strategy
5. The list of regulatory legal acts through which the Concept is supposed to be implemented
Pursuant to the “Strategy Kazakhstan-2050: new political course of the established state” (hereinafter referred to as the Strategy-2050), the country has set a course for accelerated modernization and industrialization, which are reflected in the Concept of Kazakhstan’s joining the top 30 developed nations. Kazakhstan intends to avail itself of a 15-20-year “window of opportunity” for bringing five strategic directions to fruition: the human capital development, the improvement of the institutional environment, the formation of knowledge-based economy, the creation of modern infrastructure and the advancement of international integration.
The perception of human capital as an objectively paramount condition of social modernization has placed the need for the transformation of economic, social and socio-political institutions on the agenda. To this end, in 2014, the Government approved the Concept of Social Development of the Republic of Kazakhstan until 2030, which is aimed at creating conditions for improving the quality and competitiveness of human capital, as well as achieving a high standard of quality of life for all Kazakhstanis, which reflects strategic objectives for reforming social and labor relations, the systems of healthcare, education and social protection with a special focus on social support for motherhood, childhood and vulnerable groups of families.
The first socially significant structures to address issues related to women, motherhood and childhood were set up during the period of Kazakhstan’s developing into a democratic state. Kazakhstan has acceded to the UN fundamental documents on the empowerment and protection of women’s rights and opportunities.
The adoption and implementation of the Gender Equality Strategy for 2006-2016 (hereinafter referred to as the Gender Strategy) was instrumental in taking more balanced approach to issues related to the rights of and opportunities for both women and men.
Based on the results of the third and fourth periodic reports on the implementation of the provisions of the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women, the UN Committee positively assessed the creation of the legal framework for equal rights of and opportunities for men and women.
Moreover, in September 2015, Kazakhstan joined the UN Sustainable Development Goals (hereinafter referred to as the SDGs), where 12 of the 17 goals are gender-sensitive. These goals require national adaptation and consideration within the framework of all strategic directions and tasks of the state.
The Gender Strategy’s accomplishment gave rise to favorable opportunities for reconciling a new stage of state gender policy with international trends in sustainable development, national strategic priorities and new principles of social policy.
The existing state planning documents view the institution of family exclusively as an object of social protection.
At the new stage of its development, it is important for Kazakhstan to work out own approaches to the formation of family policy, since the family plays an important role among all social institutions having an impact on the human capital’s quality.
As international practice shows, patterns of gender relations significantly influence the level of the family’s robustness. The higher the level of gender equality is, the greater responsibility, parity and effectiveness family members demonstrate when performing their household, economic, moral-educational, protective and other important functions.
Thus, the creation of conditions for the formation of a modern sustainable family and achievement of gender equality is an apparently inextricable process of social modernization.
The development of comprehensive Concept of family and gender policies in the Republic of Kazakhstan (hereinafter referred to as the Concept) as a link between existing concepts in the field of competitiveness and social development appears to be an obvious and reasonable necessity and a fundamental condition for successful integration of the Republic of Kazakhstan into the world community.
The Concept was developed on the basis of the Constitution of the Republic of Kazakhstan, the “Kazakhstan 2050” Strategy, the “100 concrete steps” National Plan, the Concept of Kazakhstan’s joining the top 30 developed nations, the United Nations Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women, the SDGs and other ratified international treaties and agreements.
1. Analysis of the current situation. Key issues and major accomplishments
1.1. Accomplishments and key issues in the field of family policy
The state family policy is an integral part of the social policy of Kazakhstan and comprises a system of principles, assessments and measures of organizational, economic, legal, scientific, informational and staffing support aimed at improving conditions for and enhancing the quality of life of the family.
The Gender Strategy can boast of achieving an upward trend in the empowerment of married men and women over its implementation period.
In order to create opportunities for combining family responsibilities with work activities, labor laws enshrined norms on the parents’ rights to flexible forms of employment and a child care leave. They also include norms fixing the features of regulation of the labor of women, pregnant women and women with a child (children).
Concurrently, the state provides support for families with children through social benefits and services contained in the package of support measures. The social benefits system includes birth grants and child care allowances for a child under 1 year, for raising a disabled child, a state allowance for children under 18 years of age, a special state allowance for mothers with many children and for families.
In 2008, social payments from the compulsory social insurance system were introduced for the loss of income due to pregnancy and childbirth, adoption of a newborn (newborns), and also in connection with caring for a child until he/she reaches 1 year.
Since 2014, mandatory pension contributions have been additionally subsidized for recipients of social childcare benefits in order to ensure an adequate amount of pension savings for working women.
In order to facilitate the upbringing of children in the family, to financially encourage adoptive parents and caregivers, lump-sum payments are given to citizens who adopted orphaned children; benefits for the maintenance of an orphaned child and a child without parental care - to his/her guardians or trustees; payments - to foster carers.
The effectiveness of state measures of social support for motherhood and childhood is confirmed by positive statistics. Thus, compared to 2010 the birth rate has increased by 8.8%: if in 2010, 366.2 thousand children were born, the number of newborns as of January 1, 2016 is 398.6 thousand.
As of January 1, 2016, the population of Kazakhstan was 17.670 million people, including 9.128 million (52%) women and 8.542 million (48%) men. The population growth in 2015 was 266.4 thousand people, the growth rate was about 1.5% per year.
Over the period of implementation of the “Salamatty Kazakhstan” State Program for the Development of Healthcare in the Republic of Kazakhstan for 2011-2015, significant shifts towards the improvement of the reproductive health situation occurred.
Kazakhstan reached the UN Millennium Development Goals ahead of schedule: maternal mortality in the country decreased by 3.7 times (from 45.6 in 2006 to 12.3 in 2015, per 100,000 live births), infant mortality – by 1.5 times (from 13.9 in 2006 to 9.4 in 2015, per 1000 births). The guaranteed volume of free medical services includes early screening for breast cancer.
The Law of the Republic of Kazakhstan “On Special Social Services” adopted in 2009 has significantly expanded the range of services provided to disadvantaged individuals and families.
Access to free medical, social, legal and socio-psychological services was provided to family members with disabilities, socially significant diseases, those who were released from detention facilities, victims of violence and cruel treatment, lonely elderly people.
Some progress has been achieved in the prevention of domestic violence. On January 1, 2010, the Law of the Republic of Kazakhstan “On the Prevention of Domestic Violence” as of December 4, 2009 was enacted in Kazakhstan.
The country has created special structures to protect women from violence (the post of women and children officer was instituted in 133 out of 247 regional interior departments). The number of domestic violence injunctions used by victims of domestic violence grows every year.
There are 28 crisis centers (17 of which have a shelter) throughout all the Kazakhstani regions, while in 2006 there were only 24 centers in 10 regions; victims of violence there are provided with free medical and social, social and legal, social and psychological services, as well as temporary shelter services. Awareness-raising campaigns “16 days against violence against women” are annually held in every region.
Currently operating resource centers for family support were set up. Public associations of fathers that are involved in the moral and patriotic education of schoolchildren were created in the formal education system.
Family Day has been established, the “Mereyli Otbasy” National Competition is held annually, the National Plan for strengthening family relations, moral, ethical and spiritual values for 2015-2020 has been approved, which is being implemented in three directions: the strengthening of family values, the formation of a healthy lifestyle, the building of a Universal Labor Society; the institution of the Commissioner for the Rights of the Child was introduced, which is intended to protect the rights and legitimate interests of children.
Despite the measures taken by the state to provide comprehensive support to the family, the below indicated trends requiring urgent solutions are observed in the society.
Divorces and out-of-wedlock childbearing tend to increase. Almost every third marriage breaks up. The share of divorces of spouses with minor children has increased. In 2011, 44.9 thousand divorces (28%) accounted for 160.5 thousand marriages; in 2015, 53.3 thousand divorces (35%) accounted for 148.7 thousand marriages.
The number of single-parent families has been growing. In 2009, as compared with 1999, their share increased by 6.8%. Of these, more than 400 thousand women raise more than 700 thousand children, and more than 60 thousand men - more than 300 thousand children (15.1% of children live only with mother, 6.4% of children live only with father). Thus, every 5th child lives in a single-parent family.
Gender-based freedom of men leads to weak involvement of fathers in raising children and the problem of paying alimony for child support. 279 thousand relevant cases were under execution as of January 1, 2016.
The results of the multiple indicator cluster survey (hereinafter referred to as the MICS) show that in the Republic of Kazakhstan, in 2015, only 6.6% of children under the age of 5 were supported by fathers in their early learning process, while mothers’ support was enjoyed by 50.7% of children.
Until now, men raising children alone do not have the same rights as women in similar situations. The process of ensuring equal opportunities for men and women is affected by persistent stereotypes present in society regarding the social roles of men and women.
“Civil” and inter-family marriages among some representatives of ethnic groups are becoming more ubiquitous. For the recognition of their union, men and women more frequently apply to religious institutions instead of civil registration authorities. Alongside, unacceptable family values are being cultivated, which contradict the present position of the woman in the family, her social activity and employment. Such families face conflicts resulting in divorce with time.
There have been cases of girls’ abduction for forced marriage, which our legal and secular state sees as a crime, and not the revival of national customs and traditions.
Because of underdeveloped preventive measures, in most cases the family is given attention after the occurrence of a hardship in their life. Moreover, in order to receive assistance, it is necessary to apply to different authorities; social services are provided by different departments and frequently involve the isolation of a family member from his/her family. This entails the loss of family ties, lowers the level of socialization of a family member, whereas the assistance provided should be focused on the preservation and strengthening of the family.
The problem of reproductive health of men and women still persists. About 16% of marriages are infertile, which is equal responsibility of both men and women. Men’s destructive attitude to their own health, bad habits and an inclination to risk taking behavior at work lead to chronic diseases and deaths at an economically active age. In addition, Kazakhstan ranks the first in cancer in women.
As of early 2016, the indicator of life expectancy for women was 76.9 years, for men - 67.5 years. The gender gap is 9.4 years.
The number of terminations of unwanted pregnancies is increasing. In Kazakhstan, every fifth pregnancy ends in an abortion. According to the MICS, the contraceptive coverage of women is about 50%. At the same time, the rate of unmet needs in modern methods of contraception is 9.8%.
There is a problem of early marriages, teenage pregnancies, abortions at a young age, which is especially common in rural areas. More than two million teenage girls and girls under the age of 18 live in Kazakhstan; this is one fifth of the total female population of the republic. Over the past 5 years, 33,051 cases of teenage pregnancy have been registered, including 9,906 abortions among girls between 15 and 18 years of age. The number of abortions in the 15-18 age group remains quite high and amounts to about 2 thousand abortions per year, or 0.1% of the total number of teenage girls and girls under 18.
Cases of domestic violence and abuse have become more frequent in the society. On average, one in three women is subjected to battery, sexual abuse, or other forms of cruel treatment during her lifetime.
In 2015, over 40 thousand women applied to the Interior Ministry’s units for the protection from violence, more than 3.5 thousand of them were sent to crisis centers to receive legal and psychological assistance. In 2015, more than 35 thousand people were brought to administrative responsibility for committing crimes against family members and 8 thousand people were sentenced to administrative arrests in Kazakhstan.
Every second child aged 2 to 14 years suffers from severe forms of punishment in the family. Two-thirds of schoolchildren were victims or witnesses of abuse committed by other students or teachers.
The problem of physical abuse is the most urgent one. Countrywide, 1% of children were subjected to a severe form of physical punishment. Of particular concern are increasing incidences of rape of children.
The 2011 child abuse study of the Ministry of Education and Science shows that 67% of children (2 out of three children) do not feel safe in their own family.
In some schools and families (where children live with a stepfather/stepmother), children remain silent about the problem of abuse because they fear even more severe violence or bullying.
Although the Code of the Republic of Kazakhstan “On Marriage (Matrimony) and Family” obligates officials of state bodies and organizations, as well as other citizens, who become aware of a threat to the life and health of a child, to take steps to protect his/her rights and legitimate interests, the mechanism of reporting facts of violence is still underdeveloped.
1.2. Accomplishments and key issues in the field of gender policy
International practice shows that gender issues are priority areas of public policy in many countries. The international community regularly monitors gender equality rankings. A most weighty one is the gender gap index of the World Economic Forum (hereinafter referred to as the WEF). According to this WEF index, in 2015, Kazakhstan ranked 47th out of 145 countries.
Since our state joined the Beijing Declaration in 1995, it has been deliberately holding a course for gender policy. In December 1998, the Head of State established the National Commission for Family and Women Affairs by his decree.
Over that time, the state has adopted and implemented the Concept of Gender Policy until 2006, the Strategy for Gender Equality in the Republic of Kazakhstan for 2006 - 2016, which allowed taking further steps to create and improve national legislation in the interests of gender equality.
The main regulatory legal act in the field of gender policy is the Law of the Republic of Kazakhstan “On State Guarantees of Equal Rights and Equal Opportunities for Men and Women” adopted in 2009.
As part of gender policy’s implementation, the following measures were taken:
According to the Central Election Commission of the Republic of Kazakhstan, the number of women in elected authorities has grown. Thus, the share of women in the Majilis of the Parliament of the Republic of Kazakhstan in the first year of implementation of the Gender Strategy (2006) was 10.4%, whereas in its final year (2016) - 27.1%.
In 2016, the representation of women in local representative government authorities at all levels reached 22.2% of the total number of elected deputies, while in 2006 it was only 16.7%.
The number of regions has grown, where the share of women deputies has neared 30%. These include Kostanay (31.6%), Pavlodar (29.6%), North Kazakhstan (28.1%), West Kazakhstan (26%), East Kazakhstan (25.9%) and Akmola regions (25.7%). In 2006, such indicators were recorded only in Kostanay region.
The number of women among all administrative civil servants is 55.2% (in 2005 - 59.2%). In Sweden, this indicator is 71.8%, in France - 62.3%, in Australia - 57.5%, in Japan - 41.9%, on average for the countries of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (hereinafter referred to as the OECD) - 57.4%.
Non-governmental organizations now play a big role in the socio-political life of the country. In general, over the past 5 years, more than 500 social projects in the field of gender policy have been implemented in the republic.
Kazakhstan’s labor market is characterized by high female employment, the availability of skilled workers and low unemployment. If the unemployment rate of women in 2006 was 9.2%, in 2015 it was 5.7%; women account for 50.3% of the total number of employees.
The female-to-male earnings ratio increased from 62% in 2006 to 66% in 2015. As a comparison, the female-to-male earnings ratio in Canada in 2015 was 81.4%, in the Czech Republic - 83.5%, and in Norway - 93%. In Kazakhstan, this ratio is due to the fact that men are mostly employed in industries (oil and gas, mining, manufacturing), transport and construction, where wages are higher than the national average. In these sectors, the use of female labor is often prohibited because of heavy and harmful labor factors.
Women’s economic opportunities are expanding. The joint efforts of the National Commission for Women Affairs and Family Demographic Policy (hereinafter referred to as the National Commission for Women) and the authorized state bodies resulted in the creation of a dynamic sector of female entrepreneurship in the republic.
The active role of women is manifested primarily in small and medium-sized businesses (hereinafter referred to as SMBs). Before the implementation of the Gender Strategy, the share of women in business was 38%, today it is 50%. According to statistics, 44.2% of all currently operating SMBs in the country are headed by women (in the UK this indicator is 20%, in Canada - 15.5%, in South Korea - 35.9%), which give 31% of all jobs in Kazakhstan’s SMB sector.
Women’s entrepreneurship covers wholesale and retail trade, where their share is 60.5% of the total number of such enterprises, 61.1% make real estate transactions, 21.1% work in agriculture.
Women’s entrepreneurship is now being developed through the state programs “Employment Roadmap 2020”, “Business Roadmap 2020”, as well as various programs of international financial institutions and the “Damu” Entrepreneurship Development Fund.
In 2015, the Government of the Republic of Kazakhstan and the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development (hereinafter referred to as the EBRD) signed an agreement on the implementation of the “Women in Business” program. The program is aimed at enhancing the competitiveness and development of women’s entrepreneurship both in terms of access to finance and to know-how. The total cost of the program is 49.2 million US dollars, of which 41 million in the form of credit lines to second-tier banks are allocated by the EBRD for the purpose of lending to enterprises headed by women.
The measures taken allowed Kazakhstan to rank the 26th in the indicator “Ratio of women to men in the labor force” of the WEF global competitiveness index (2015).
The legislation of the Republic of Kazakhstan in the field of education provides for equal access to and opportunities for receiving a good-quality education both to men and women. The WEF estimates the level of gender gaps in education in Kazakhstan as minimal.
Gender equality is observed when receiving technical and vocational education, and also when entering higher educational institutions on a competitive basis in accordance with the state educational order.
To date, 38 higher educational institutions have developed and implemented 60 elective courses addressing gender equality as part of the variable component of specialties in such areas as “Education", “Humanities”, “Law”, “Social Sciences, Business and Economics”.
128.5 thousand people study at higher educational institutions using state educational grants, of which 60% are girls (in Australia - 58.7%,in Belgium - 60.7%, in Finland - 59.5%, in Japan - 45.4%, in Turkey - 50% 1); out of 1 894 students, who are holders of the “Bolashak” scholarship of the President of the Republic of Kazakhstan studying abroad, - 49.5% are women.
Women have got more opportunities for engaging in professional sports, they won 47% of the Olympic awards at the Summer Olympic Games in Brazil for Kazakhstan. There are 40 women in the national sports team, of whom three became winners and prize-winners of world championships, in the disabled sports team there are 145 women, two of whom became winners of world championships.
Under the Law of the Republic of Kazakhstan “On Peacekeeping Activities of the Republic of Kazakhstan”, 107 women are serving in the Kazakhstan peacekeeping brigade. The share of female military personnel in Kazakhstan’s army is 13.2%, of whom female officers are 5.6%, 14 women have the military rank of colonel, 4 women hold senior high-rank positions. As a comparison, the share of women in the Canadian army is 12%.
Despite the accomplishments, problems still persist in the form of high gender gaps and imbalances. Thus, according to WEF measurements, Kazakhstan has the average level of gender gaps for indicators in the areas of expanding political opportunities and socio-economic participation. In the long run, they can affect the competitiveness of the country’s human capital.
1 Undergraduate or equivalent program, as of 2014.
Low representation of women at all decision-making levels.
Currently, out of 411 political civil servants in office, only 40, or 9.7% are women (in 2005 - 11%). In the OECD countries, women averaged 29.3% of ministerial posts in 2015.
There are no significant changes in the representation of women in leadership positions in local (territorial) executive bodies.
At the same time, women in leadership positions in the corporate sector in Kazakhstan are still underrepresented. According to the World Bank, only 9.8% of large corporations have women in senior management positions. In the world’s largest companies, women make up about 41% of the total number of employees, but only 19% hold senior management positions and 12% of them have management board positions.2
Virtually, no changes have occurred in sectoral gender segregation. Women continue to account for more than 70% of employees in the healthcare, education and social services sectors, while in the financial and public sectors women are a slim majority. Traditionally, these sectors are less profitable compared to the “male sectors”, such as construction, the oil and gas sector, extractive industries, transportation, etc.
Despite the fact that the average wage of working women in relation to men increased from 62% in 2006 to 67% in 2015, the gap in the average wage of men and women is still 33%.
The level of involvement of female labor in innovative, infrastructural and high-tech projects and programs is very low. Currently, out of 18,000 jobs under the Nurly Zhol State Infrastructure Development Program, women account for 1,998 (11%).
Existing restrictions for women on jobs with heavy and harmful labor conditions negatively affect women’s access to high-paid professions. The approved list of works prohibiting the use of women’s labor in Kazakhstan, in comparison with the CIS countries, is one of the most extensive.
2 OECD Gender Policy Preliminary review (August 2016)
The issue of expanding economic opportunities for rural women having no access to public, state resources and services retains its relevance. According to the national statistics, every third rural woman in Kazakhstan is self-employed and depends on subsistence farming for livelihood, which includes personal consumption. Incomes, which include personal consumption, initially deprive women of the opportunity to invest in human capital for return in the real sector of the economy.
There is a problem of stereotyping in girls’ choice of subjects and areas of study, which is subsequently “reflected in the structure of employment, characterized by the concentration of women in such traditionally female areas as healthcare and the service sector”3.
3 Results of the combined third and fourth periodic reports of Kazakhstan on the implementation of the provisions of the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women by the UN Committee (2014).
Currently, 798 technical and vocational educational institutions train in 183 specialties and 463 qualifications, 47.7% of students are girls, who make up 24.1% in agricultural specialties, 35.6% in technical and technological, 39.2% in humanitarian, 15.5% in pedagogical, 78.0% in medical ones.
The introduction of gender-sensitive elective courses should change the traditional professional identity of young people. However, there are no noticeable changes in the structure of gender segregation of youth in vocational education. Gender examination of textbooks and programs was not included in the system of training sources’ assessment and approval for use.
2. Vision for the development of family and gender policies in the Republic of Kazakhstan until 2030
2.1. Models of accomplishing family and gender policies in foreign states
Analysis of foreign states’ development shows that the world doesn’t have a single universal model in the field of family and gender policies. Each country forms its own family and gender policies with account of the established public administration system, national characteristics and culture.
Models of accomplishing family policy in foreign states
According to OECD statistics, government spending on family support in the OECD countries includes direct payments (benefits), funding for services and reduction of the tax burden on families. Thus in 2011, the average government spending on family support in the OECD countries was 2.55% (% of GDP), of which 1.35% accounted for direct payments (benefits), 0.95% - for the funding of services) and 0.25% - for the reduction of the tax burden on families.
At present, the OECD developed countries have three models of family policy with a special focus on the family protection: liberal, conservative and social-democratic ones.
The liberal model of social policy is common in the UK, Ireland, Switzerland, Canada, Australia, New Zealand and the USA. In these countries, the state plays an auxiliary role in the social welfare of the family, and assistance is provided only to the most needy families. Social support for citizens is provided through advanced insurance systems and with minimal government intervention. Material assistance is targeted and is only provided to those in need.
Single parents in the UK receive material support until their child reaches the age of 16: child allowance, free health care services, preferential right to housing. In Australia, single parents, including fathers, receive government assistance, and the amount of this allowance depends on their earnings. Widows with minor children and those who are already 50 years old receive special-category pensions.
In the UK, 26 weeks of fully paid leave are provided for giving care to each child after his/her birth, then 6 weeks with 90% payment and another 20 weeks at a fixed rate. In Canada, maternity leave is 35 weeks divided between parents. The leave in Canada is paid by the social insurance system.
In the United States, violence against children is regulated by law, according to which a spouse who has used violence is barred from accessing the house and from any contact with his/her wife/husband and children for two weeks. Many US states, for example, in the late 1960s, adopted laws obliging citizens to report every case of suspected child abuse to the authorities. Any person, on his/her own initiative, can inform the social service meant to protect children, or the police on the case or suspicion of child abuse in a family. Such reports are viewed as common necessity rather than a noble intention. As for doctors, teachers, coaches, educators - it is their direct duty. They can report an abuse case over the phone, by mail, document it right at their facility within 24 hours after the incident.
The conservative model of family policy is carried out using three approaches. “Active” support is typical for Belgium and France (simultaneous combination of a well-developed child care sector, long paid leaves and substantial cash benefits for children of different ages). The “limited support” approach is common in Germany and Austria (a less balanced scheme of benefits and a network of preschool childcare facilities). The “family” approach is usual in Italy, Spain and Portugal (low indicators of social support for the family; the amount of benefits is negligible; parental leave is relatively long, but low paid).
Maternity leave in France lasts 16 weeks (full salary-preserved leave), 6 of which must be used before the birth of child, while paternal leave consists of only 11 days in a row. With the 3rd child, maternity leave lasts 26 weeks for women and 18 weeks for men.
Belgian law provides for 15 weeks of employer-funded paid parental leave equal to 82% of earnings in the first month. The rest of the leave is paid for by the mutual insurance system in the amount of 75% of previous earnings. Childcare leave is 10 working days, which must be used within the month following the birth. Child maintenance costs are not taxable until the child is 12 years old. Children between 2.5 and 6 years of age attend school free of charge (during working hours).
In Germany, parents receive two-thirds of their previous earnings for a period of one year after the birth of the child, and if fathers also take parental leave - 2 months are also paid for in addition.
Countries using the conservative model are actively preventing violence against women and children through close cooperation of the police, prosecutors, judges and crisis centers.
Countries, such as Denmark, Norway, Sweden, Iceland and Finland, represent the social-democratic model or the Scandinavian model of family policy, which provides universal state guarantees of income and a highly developed system of child care services. The bulk of government spending is aimed at meeting social needs.
Government structures at national and local levels have set up special authorized bodies for the affairs of women, family, childhood and gender equality.
In foreign countries, state support is provided to parents until their children come of age. Thus, in Sweden, parents receive state benefits until their child reaches the age of majority.
Parents have the right to divide 18 months of paid parental leave to care for the child, during which their wages are compensated for by the government and the employer in equal shares. To encourage parents, at least 3 out of 18 months should be used by the second parent, usually the father.
In order to eliminate violence against women, intimate partner and domestic violence, the Government of Finland has developed an “Action Plan to Reduce Violence against Women 2010-2015”. This Action Plan’s measures include increasing and improving shelter services, limiting the use of mediation in crimes related to intimate partner violence. Several new Internet resources were created in Denmark, in particular, the Ministry for Children, Education and Gender Equality created the “Violence against Women” website, which provides advice, information and data on such crimes.
Models of accomplishing gender equality in foreign states
The experience of countries that have gone through social modernization process suggests that its success directly correlates with the achievement of gender equality in society and the family.
There are four approaches to achieving gender equality4:
“gender integration” covers all aspects of socio-economic life, political, private life, civil society, etc. (Denmark, Iceland, Norway, Sweden and Finland). The gender equality integration implies that certain views on equality become part of politics in all areas. Gender equality includes equitable distribution of power and resources, as well as equal assessment of actions and needs of men and women. In practice, this means that women’s rights, conditions and social status should be taken into account as compared with men’s corresponding rights, conditions and status.
4 Basic stages in the formation of the concept of gender policy and the model of parity democracy in Ukraine - A. Tolstokorova, the Bulletin of the Far Eastern Federal University. Economics and Management, Issue №2/2009
Many OECD countries have gender-sensitive budgeting, which is a tool for assessing the impact of the state budget, which provides for an analysis of gender-oriented allocations aimed at achieving equal opportunities for men and women in public services.
Thus, for example, the Government of Sweden allocated 26 million SEK for a four-year period to implement the Strategy for Gender Equality in government bodies for 2015 - 2018;
“intersecting model” is typical for European countries (Belgium, France) building their policies on the traditions of positive actions towards women. Three countries fall under this model - France, Belgium and Spain. However, these countries’ approaches differ. In France, the initiative directly goes from civil society up to government institutions, and in Belgium - from government institutions down to society.
In Belgium, for example, the post of State Secretary for Social Emancipation was instituted for two purposes: promoting equal opportunities between men and women, as well as advising the government on these issues. The country also has the Institute for the Equality of Women and Men, and also the Federal Equal Opportunities Council monitoring the situation in terms of equality between men and women.
France has the High Council for Equality between Women and Men;
the “equality beyond gender” model is based on the understanding that inequality goes beyond gender, covering other categories: age, legal capacity, nationality, etc., which also need to restore balance (the UK). This model assumes the interplay of economic development and gender equality. At the same time, economic growth contributes to the destruction of the rigid system of gender division of labor, which occurs as a result of growing opportunities for women in the labor market, women’s more extensive participation in entrepreneurship, equal access to education and healthcare;
the model of “joint incentives” is a new model that arose both in response to demands from below (women’s organizations and communities) and from above - international statuses, finances, investments. This model assumes the achievement of equal rights between men and women through social partnership between the state and civil society and enhanced participation of non-governmental organizations in this process.
There are 250 non-governmental women’s organizations in Poland, the largest of them are the Association of Rural Housewives and the Polish Women’s League (both organizations have about 1 million members). Most active is the support center for women’s organizations, as well as the center for the protection of women’s rights.
In the Republic of Korea, a database of 100,000 women has been compiled to expand the representation of women within the “Fostering of Future Women Leaders” national policy project.
2.2. Basic principles in and approaches to the development of family and gender policies in the Republic of Kazakhstan until 2030
Basic principles in and approaches to the development of family policy
At the present stage of development, it is important for Kazakhstan, as a multi-ethnic and multi-religious state recognizing the principles and values of spiritual and moral traditions of all the ethnicities, to determine the family policy principles and approaches.
The formation of the institution of family in Kazakhstani society is influenced not only by its own socio-cultural, economic and political conditions, but also by a number of external factors inherent in the information society.
The family is not only the most important group that accompanies the entire life cycle of a human being, but also basis for stable and sustainable development of the society itself and a prerequisite for the state’s well-being. The family has many projections in real life - from moral and spiritual to financial and economic. It performs the overwhelming number of functions related to reproduction, upbringing, versatile socialization, passing down traditions and preservation of ethnic and cultural traditions.
The family helps develop labor skills, certain attitudes to the values of human life in society, lays the foundation for economic thinking and forms psychological microclimate playing an educational role.
Depending on regional features, the “age” of a family and spouses’ level of education determine attitudes to the structure and size of a family group, parenthood, spouses’ professional employment, involvement of family members in public life, distribution of intra-family functions and responsibilities.
The Kazakhstani approach implies the state’s creation of conditions for empowering the family to develop independently and cope with their difficult life situations by way of achieving gender equality in family relations. A crucial prerequisite is the building of truly equal relations between man and woman, not only at the public level in the field of labor relations, but also in the private sphere within a single family.
Today, the society sets the same requirements to women as to men in the performance of labor functions. However, in family-domestic relations, the gender stereotype of male privilege has been preserved. Nowadays, both parents should bear the same responsibility for raising children and housekeeping. At the same time, it is important to maintain positive family traditions and moral and spiritual values characteristic of ethnic and cultural identity, among other things.
To strengthen the institution of family and improve the well-being of all family members, Kazakhstan’s state family policy helps improve access to and quality of social services for families with children, single-parent families; to create jobs with equal access to and pay for parental leave for both parents (single parents); to eradicate poverty through an adequate level of remuneration, pension payments and social benefits; to promote the principles of shared responsibility within the family.
The implementation of family policy in the Republic of Kazakhstan will be based on the principles of:
1) equality of spouses’ rights, opportunities and obligations in the performance of family functions;
2) access to conditions for the best functioning of the family;
3) independence of the family in making decisions regarding their lives;
4) responsibility of the family for the upbringing, education and development of the personality of a child (children) and the preservation of his/her (their) health;
5) partnerships of the family, society and the state;
6) targeting and inclusion in the implementation of state family policy, taking into account the needs and requirements of families;
7) zero tolerance of all types of domestic violence;
8) intolerance to immoral behavior in society.
Basic principles and approaches in the formation of gender policy
Kazakhstan’s modern state policy targeted at achieving equality of women and men in society aims to overcome all forms and manifestations of sex-based discrimination, to create political prerequisites and social conditions for most complete self-fulfillment of women and men in all spheres of labor, social and personal life.
As international practice shows that effective implementation of gender policy is directly conditional on the younger generation’s early perception of the promulgated ideology, behavioral stereotypes and spiritual values.
Thus, the worldview and attitude to state policy in various spheres of social life to a large extent depend on the quality of upbringing of the younger generation.
The empowerment of both women and men to maximize the effective stimulation of a more inclusive and sustainable development of society requires a clear comprehensive vision of gender equality in society.
It is obvious that a logical link for introduction of the integrated gender approach should be the capacity building of representatives of the government, the private and civil sectors in matters of gender equality, expertise and assessment.
The implementation of gender policy in the Republic of Kazakhstan will be based on the principles of:
1) equal enjoyment of all economic, social, cultural, civil and political rights, regardless of gender;
2) inadmissibility of discrimination, gender asymmetry in state and social life;
3) formation of gender identity and eradication of gender stereotypes in society.
3. Goals, objectives, period of implementation and target indicators of the Concept
The goals of state family policy are to support, strengthen and protect families, create necessary conditions conducive to the physical, intellectual, spiritual, moral development of families and their members, and protect motherhood, fatherhood and childhood.
The goals of the state gender policy are to achieve equal rights, benefits, duties of and opportunities for men and women in all spheres of society, to overcome all forms and manifestations of gender discrimination.
To achieve the goal of state family policy, it is necessary to ensure the accomplishment of the following objectives:
1) the improvement of legislation in the field of family policy, and bringing it into line with international standards, recommendations of the UN, SDGs and the OECD;
2) bridging gaps in the life expectancy of men and women, as well as providing necessary conditions for protecting their health, including family planning;
3) the enforcement of rights and safeguards for the interests of children, promotion of their physical, intellectual and spiritual development;
4) the building of a positive image of family life, the enhancement of spiritual and moral values of society, the placing of emphasis on the upbringing of the younger generation;
5) increasing the effectiveness of the system of safeguards for families in need of social protection, including families with minor children;
6) the reduction of incidents of violence against all family members, including those on the basis of gender;
7) improving the quality of state social services provided to the family up to the OECD level.
To achieve the goal of state gender policy, it is necessary to ensure the accomplishment of the following objectives:
1) the improvement of legislation in the field of gender policy, and bringing it into line with international standards, recommendations of the UN, SDGs and the OECD;
2) the creation of mechanisms and conditions for effective planning and coordination of actions of central and local authorities on the implementation of gender policy;
3) to ensure the 30% representation of women at the decision-making level in executive, representative and judicial authorities, state, quasi-state and corporate sectors;
4) providing conditions for increasing the share of women owning a tangible asset (land, property, enterprises, individual entrepreneurs, etc.);
5) women’s economic empowerment through the creation of equal access to the labor market, financial and other resources;
6) the provision of targeted support to women in rural areas through mechanisms for the development of female entrepreneurship;
7) the provision of scientific and methodological support of family and gender policies and continuous universal gender education of the population;
8) the provision of conditions affecting the gender gap reduction in the average wage of men and women;
9) the examination and assessment with a view to introducing gender approaches into the system of state and budget planning and taking them into account when developing regulatory legal acts aimed at ensuring equal rights of and equal opportunities for men and women;
10) empowering women to promote peace and security.
At the first stage (2017 - 2019), it is planned to implement measures for advancing the results achieved in family and gender policies, which will be provided for in the Action Plan for the Implementation of the Concept of Gender and Family Policies for 2017-2019.
At the second stage (2020 - 2022), it is planned to commence the implementation of long-term objectives and activities of the family and gender policies of Kazakhstan.
At the third stage (2023 - 2030), it is planned to implement long-term tasks and activities of the family and gender policies of Kazakhstan aimed at achieving the SDGs, which, in turn, will contribute to the country’s joining the top 30 most developed nations.
1. The gender gap in the life expectancy of men relative to women will be 8.5 years by 2020, 8 years by 2023, 7 years by 2030.
2. The proportion of divorced marriages in the number of registered marriages will be 32% by 2020, 30% by 2023, 25% by 2030.
3. The rate of abortion per 1000 women of reproductive age will be 17.0 by 2020, 15.0 by 2023, and 10.0 by 2030.
4. Registered facts of domestic violence against women will be decreased by 20% in 2020, by 30% by 2023, by 50% by 2030.
5. Registered facts of child abuse will decrease by 20% in 2020, by 30% by 2023, by 50% by 2030.
6. The ratio of female-to-male median earnings will be 70% in 2020, 73% in 2023, and 75% in 2030.
7. The proportion of women owning a tangible asset (land, property, enterprises, entrepreneurs, etc.) relative to men will increase by 5% by 2020, by 7% by 2023, and by 10% by 2030.
8. The share of women at the decision-making level in executive, representative and judicial authorities, in the state, quasi-state and corporate sectors will be 22% by 2020, 25% by 2023, and 30% by 2030.
9. The share of women promoting peace and security will be 8% by 2020, 8.5% by 2023, and 10% by 2030.
4. Strategy for the implementation of family and gender policies in Kazakhstan
4.1. Family policy implementation strategy
The medium and long-term priorities of family policy will be the formation of an effective system of protecting family health, the improvement of the system of family upbringing, education and leisure, the development of the system of social services for families with children.
The strengthening of the institution of family through the formation of family relations based on equal partnership between men and women.
The issues of a positive image of the family and marriage, family upbringing will become a main direction of state policy.
Efforts will be intensified to promote family values and traditions, preserve the continuity of generations through the organization of cultural-educational, mass cultural events.
In order to strengthen the institution of family, the legislation of the Republic of Kazakhstan will be improved to ensure equal rights and opportunities for men and women in the field of family relations, protection of motherhood and childhood, and raising parents’ responsibility for children’s upbringing.
The issue of selecting an institutional structure for studying the problems of family policy will be considered in order to conduct multifaceted studies of the family situation in Kazakhstan to identify prospects and directions of development.
In order to prevent child abandonment, efforts will be intensified to devise alternative forms of settling children from orphanages in families, such as custodianship, guardianship, foster care, adoption, adoptive family, and also to create family-type children’s homes.
The services of mediation and socio-psychological support for the family will be worked out for the provision to families in conflict or difficult life situations. The issue of introducing the institute of psychologists-mediators will be considered.
To enable the family to fully realize educational function, measures will be taken to develop children’s cinema, theaters, museums, literature and exhibitions.
Through the PPP mechanism, a network of high-quality and low-cost facilities will be developed for children’s early learning and pre-school education, caring for elderly parents and organization of their leisure.
A legal action will be taken to consider the issue of reducing working time for parents with minor children.
With the involvement of all interested parties, a competency framework for parents, including single parents, will be developed. The institution of fatherhood will be strengthened and fathers will be provided with equal conditions for exercising the rights of fathers raising children.
A culture of equal partnership in the family will be formed in the process of educational and pedagogical work at compulsory, professional and additional educational institutions.
All state-funded popular science editions will introduce a regular column on equal participation of parents in the upbringing and socialization of children.
Non-governmental organizations will intensify their activities in the field of professional assistance to families (resource support for families, crisis centers, helplines, etc.) within the planned state social order.
Improving the quality and widening the range of support services for the family
The diversification of family support services will be followed by measures aimed at reducing families’ poverty and social disadvantage.
Measures to promote employment and professional training will be provided to able-bodied members of single-parent, multi-child and low-income families on a priority basis.
To boost female employment, measures will be implemented to cover children between 1 and 3 years of age with pre-school education and training, which will create favorable conditions for combining responsibilities for raising children with work activities.
Forms of employment will be developed to combine parental and family responsibilities with professional activities, in particular, part-time employment, flexible work hours or work from home jobs for citizens with high family load (single parents, parents with many children).
In order to support working parents, schools will consider the establishment of after-school centers for children with both parents working or children from socially vulnerable families. Children’s access to additional educational services will increase.
At-risk children and children exposed to social risk will be involved in sports sections, interest groups and development programs.
Based on international standards, a monitoring system will be developed for regular collection, analysis and use of disaggregated data on inequality among the most vulnerable children, adolescents and their families.
An integrated model with a focus on the prevention of social disadvantage will be created to provide social services and assistance. As part of this model, a mechanism will be developed for coordinating the activities of social workers in education, healthcare and social protection systems and other areas, which will make it possible to comprehensively identify the needs of the family and provide social services to needy citizens on the “one stop” principle.
An information course will be developed for parents on protecting children from the spread of harmful information via the Internet.
Various programs will be developed to increase the knowledge of families and professionals working with children about various types of violence.
Creating conditions for preserving reproductive health and closing gender gaps in life expectancy
The preservation of the reproductive health of men and women, the health of children and youth, and the protection of motherhood and childhood will become priorities in the activities of state bodies and non-governmental organizations.
The implementation of measures to reduce maternal and infant mortality will continue.
The issue of amending current legislation on reproductive and sexual health will be considered with a view of reducing the age of young people from 18 to 16 years regarding their ability to apply independently (without parents’ consent).
To address infertility problems, new methods of infertility treatment using modern technologies will be improved and introduced. To this end, clinical protocols for the diagnosis and treatment of infertility will be revised on an ongoing basis, taking into account the best international practices, and measures will be taken to increase the level of professional training of specialists in the field of reproductive medicine in accordance with international requirements.
The number of men and women, including adolescents, receiving services of reproductive health professionals will continue to grow. The reproductive and sexual health rooms will continue to operate, including those for the youth (family planning rooms), in each outpatient facility.
Further measures will be taken to prevent and reduce the number of abortions, make available safe motherhood methods to the population and give birth to healthy children through counseling and training of the population and medical workers.
Measures will be taken to improve medical, social and psychological support for women during pregnancy, delivery and after delivery, to introduce new work forms preparing for parenthood, delivery and breastfeeding and fathers’ participation in delivery.
To maintain and improve the quality of life of children with physical disabilities, reduce diseases, measures will be taken for the early detection, timely treatment and rehabilitation of children with impaired physical and mental development. The system of secondary and vocational education will consider the extension of training programs for adolescents and youth on protecting sexual and reproductive health, safe sexual behavior, preventing unwanted pregnancies and STD/HIV transmission.
Due to the activities of youth centers and health schools, access will be provided to information in the field of reproductive health and family planning.
The activities of healthy lifestyle centers will be focused on the formation of a healthy lifestyle in men and deliverance from tobacco, drugs and alcohol addictions.
More state educational grants will be allocated for the training of andrologists and urologists.
Physical culture and sports will become an integral part of society; diverse, affordable and useful leisure for the family will be organized.
Employers will create conditions for employees to engage in physical education and mass sports.
Prevention of domestic violence and child abuse
The fight against violence is defined as a priority state task in the Republic of Kazakhstan. One of the Sustainable Development Goals is to significantly reduce all forms of violence, which requires more constructive and clear public policy measures in this area.
Legislative acts in the field of prevention of domestic violence and child abuse will be revised. In particular, they will provide for the exclusion of reconciliation in cases involving violence against women, which caused serious harm to their health, as well as harsher punishments for parents and persons who committed unlawful acts against children.
Mechanisms and tools will be developed to monitor the implementation of legislation prohibiting violence child abuse in the family, at school and in closed institutions.
A set of measures will be adopted to develop a unified algorithm to enable officials of prevention facilities (health, education and social services institutions) to take prompt actions when victims of domestic violence apply to them.
Thus, the issue of improving the system of violence prevention will be considered by building mechanisms for identifying victims of violence, establishing their identity and referral to qualified specialists in crisis centers that will operate in the state and non-state sectors.
Support will be provided to families affected by violence, also using “inclusive” criteria for providing assistance to HIV-infected, former convicts and drug addicts.
The issue of creating an information portal will be considered for the provision of information on legal, psychological, rehabilitation, medical assistance to victims of all types of violence. Access to justice for victims of discrimination and violence from vulnerable groups will be increased, as well as for the provision of state-guaranteed social, legal and other assistance.
Work will continue on developing a system of assistance to victims of violence, improving the system of information and statistics on domestic violence, organizing appropriate psycho-correctional programs, trainings, and psychologists’ consultations for people who have come to the attention of law enforcement agencies or are held liable for causing harm to family members.
Non-governmental organizations (councils of fathers, mothers, elders, community councils) will be involved in raising awareness among representatives of religious institutions about the inadmissibility and prevention of violence, as well as early marriages.
The implementation of a state social order will involve NGOs searching for and testing social innovations and providing anti-crisis services to families, and also those helping victims of discrimination and violence to get access to justice.
The awareness and knowledge of families and professionals working with children will be raised about various types of violence through the development of various programs on positive parenting and child safety.
High-quality qualification selection will be applied to personnel in boarding schools, orphanages, homes for the disabled and psycho-neurological dispensaries, and also legal framework for the protection of the rights of children, adolescents and women in boarding schools and prisons will be improved.
In order to prepare orphaned children and children without parental care for independent life, measures will be taken to increase their legal and financial literacy, and special programs for adaptation and integration into society will be developed.
The activities of government agencies responsible for the eradication of trafficking in and exploitation of children and adults will be brought into line with international human rights standards.
The prosecution authorities, together with law enforcement and other authorized bodies, will hold events in boarding schools, orphanages, during which special attention will be paid to communications and complaints about sexual harassment and other forms of violence.
Through the mass media (hereinafter referred to as the media), social networks and social advertising, general public awareness of the state’s current measures to protect children from all forms of violence will increase.
4.2. Gender policy implementation strategy
The implementation of the Concept will help create conditions for women’s and men’s enjoyment of the right to life without sex-based discrimination.
Strengthening the gender equality institution through state regulation and introduction of gender impact assessment in the system of state and budget planning, and taking it into account when developing regulatory legal acts
The gender equality conditions in state bodies ensured by the heads of state bodies will be one of the criteria and indicators for assessing the effectiveness of government bodies.
Continuous monitoring will be conducted for the observance of equal rights of and opportunities for civil servants of different sexes for career growth and promotion.
An authorized body will be appointed to provide leadership and intersectoral coordination in the field of gender policy, and the institutional framework of the National Commission will be improved.
Gender approaches (including gender statistics) will be integrated into the system of state and budget planning, the developed gender approaches will be taken into account when working out regulatory legal acts aimed at ensuring equal rights of and equal opportunities for men and women.
The authorized statistics body of the Republic of Kazakhstan will cover more industries in terms of ensuring gender-disaggregated indicators.
The issues of introducing gender budgeting will be considered in the formation of budgets of state bodies.
Together with the Academy of Public Administration under the President of the Republic of Kazakhstan, continuous training of civil servants on issues of gender-oriented budgeting will be provided.
International cooperation will be strengthened through continuous exchange of knowledge, lessons learned and good practices in the area of gender equality initiatives in social life.
At the legislative level, the legal status of the concept of “decision-making level” and the principles of gender equality in the formation of party governing bodies and lists will be determined.
Prevention of violence against women
It is necessary to intensify the application of the provisions of the UN Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women in the judicial practice.
Legislative acts on the inadmissibility and suppression of all forms of discrimination and gender-based violence will be improved in accordance with international requirements of the UN, SDGs and the OECD.
The general awareness of the population about current state measures to protect women from all forms of violence through the media, social networks, and social advertising will grow.
Mechanisms for monitoring and reporting on cases of gender discrimination and violence will be improved.
With the involvement of NGOs, authorities of the Prosecutor’s office will regularly visit prisons for monitoring the situation with sexual harassment and violence, as well as inspecting the conditions of women’s detention.
Instructions will be worked out and comprehensive training will be introduced in the system of social and penitentiary institutions regarding procedures for protecting the rights of girls and women to life without discrimination and violence.
For providing adequate protection to women, respecting their integrity and dignity, law enforcement practice will be studied and unified approaches will be developed to ensure effective access to justice for victims of rape, sexual abuse and other forms of violence, and also to provide state-guaranteed social, legal and other assistance to women from vulnerable population groups.
Through coordinated action between the health, social protection and law enforcement sectors, a system of interagency response to gender-based violence will be developed and implemented.
The system of collecting and analyzing statistical information on violence against women will be improved.
Giving men and women equal access to all types of resources necessary for entrepreneurial activity
In order to develop entrepreneurship, equal opportunities will be provided for men and women.
Women’s participation in innovative, infrastructural and high-tech government projects and programs will increase. Women’s business will gain traction in the sector of modern and innovative services: communication and digital services, entertainment, tourism, etc.
A map to assess gender needs and requirements of rural areas and single-industry towns in the field of employment and access to basic social services will be developed; gender needs and requirements of rural areas and single-industry towns will be integrated in the lists of priority areas of support for small businesses.
Through financial support for entrepreneurship and development of consulting and marketing services, a wide network of centers for fundamental entrepreneurship training will be created; measures to develop small and medium-sized businesses will be improved.
Policies to reduce barriers to women’s entrepreneurship, administrative burdens and excessive regulatory restrictions will be improved.
Training courses will be organized to provide free mentoring business rehabilitation and adaptation of self-employed rural women.
The accessibility of social services and state support for SMBs will be analyzed on a regular basis in terms of gender by place of residence, age, disability and property status.
Creation of conditions for ensuring equal employment of men and women
The forecast of economic activity of the population will be compiled with account of the gender specificity of individual regions and production sectors, as well as poverty monitoring data.
The system of national accounts will include gender-sensitive indicators that measure unaccounted-for domestic care work, employment in the informal sector, work from home, paid domestic labor, etc.
Support will be given to women’s economic empowerment through the promotion of employment and entrepreneurship, also in sectors of the economy traditionally employing men.
The legislation on labor regime and protection will be improved with account of gender aspects, as well as labor conditions, and the possibilities of introducing and expanding flexible forms of employment will be considered.
The list of works prohibiting the use of female labor will be revised, and women will be given access to jobs that do not pose a risk to women’s health due to their automation, technologization and informatization.
Trade union organizations will continue to work to protect the labor rights of citizens, including women, involved in innovative, infrastructural and high-tech government projects and programs.
Promotion of gender education
A developed system of gender education and enlightenment of the population will operate to help eliminate gender stereotypes, which will cover all age categories, starting from childhood.
The system of career counseling of the youth will be updated through the use of new technologies to identify the abilities and interests of an individual.
The issue of publishing textbooks and manuals on family and gender policies will be considered.
Gender content will be included in all discourses of scientific, professional and public communities concerning the discussion of modern approaches to education.
Lectures on gender equality will be included in the teachers’ advanced training system.
Cascade training will be arranged for coaching groups capable of working with methodological associations in schools and regional branches of continuing education structures.
Training and continuing education programs aimed at gender equality and gender mainstreaming will be expanded, including data collection and analysis, inter alia, gender impact assessments before making government decisions.
Women’s empowerment in promoting peace and security
Women will be for sure involved in the process of decision-making on peace and security issues.
The appointment of women to the posts of special representatives and envoys with the goodwill mission mandate will be considered.
In accordance with the legislation, the ratio of women to other personnel of peacekeeping troops (the national contingent of the Republic of Kazakhstan) joining UN peacekeeping missions will be increased by involving women after peacekeeping training on a voluntary basis.
The widespread use of mediation tools in the prevention and resolution of conflicts will be ensured.
The possibility of creating deliberative bodies of women activists and human rights defenders under regional security structures will be considered.
In order to prevent gender-based violence in conflict and post-conflict situations, gender-based training will be conducted and protocols of conduct will be adopted for the police, military, civil servants both at home and abroad, including peacekeepers.
5. The list of regulatory legal acts through which the Concept is supposed to be implemented
During the first stage of the Concept, it is expected to address the following tasks and priorities:
1) ensuring the rights and protecting the interests of children, promoting their physical, intellectual and spiritual development through equal access to high-quality secondary education, the formation of intellectually, physically, spiritually developed and successful citizens; promoting spiritual and moral values of the “Mysgilik El” nationwide patriotic idea and the culture of healthy living, etc.;
2) building the positive image of family life, enhancing spiritual and moral values of society, placing stronger focus on the upbringing of the younger generation;
3) reducing incidents of violence against all family members, including sex-based ones, in particular, introducing harsher punishments for parents and persons who committed unlawful acts against children; bringing the activities of state institutions responsible for the eradication of trafficking in and exploitation of children and adults into line with international human rights standards; ensuring decriminalization of criminal domestic offenses - this is supposed to be implemented through the development or amendment of the below indicated regulatory legal acts, strategic and program documents:
draft Law of the Republic of Kazakhstan “On Amendments and Additions to Some Legislative Acts of the Republic of Kazakhstan on the Activities of Organizations Protecting the Rights of the Child”;
draft Law of the Republic of Kazakhstan “On Amendments and Additions to Some Legislative Acts of the Republic of Kazakhstan on Improving the Law Enforcement System”;
Decree of the President of the Republic of Kazakhstan № 205 as of March 1, 2016 “On Approval of the State Program for the Development of Education and Science in the Republic of Kazakhstan for 2016 – 2019”;
Government Resolution as of January 28, 2015 “On Approval of the Action Plan of the Government of the Republic of Kazakhstan to Prevent and Combat Crimes Related to Trafficking in Persons for 2015 – 2017”.
In general, the goals and objectives of the Concept will be implemented through the following regulatory legal acts:
International legal documents:
1. The Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women ratified by Law of the Republic of Kazakhstan № 248 as of June 29, 1998.
2. The Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women, New York, September 6, 2000, ratified by Law of the Republic of Kazakhstan № 220 as of July 4, 2001.
3. The International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights ratified by Law of the Republic of Kazakhstan № 91 as of November 28, 2005.
4. The International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights ratified by Law of the Republic of Kazakhstan № 87 as of November 21, 2005.
5. The Convention on the Political Rights of Women ratified by Law of the Republic of Kazakhstan № 18-II as of December 30, 1999.
6. Convention of the International Labor Organization № 100 on equal remuneration of men and women for work of equal value ratified by Law of the Republic of Kazakhstan № 115-II as of December 14, 2000.
7. Beijing Declaration and Platform for Action, 1995.
8. Addis Ababa Action Agenda of the Third International Conference on Financing for Development, resolution adopted by the UN General Assembly on July 27, 2015.
9. Development Partnership Framework between the Government of the Republic of Kazakhstan and the United Nations for 2016 - 2020.
10. Transforming our world: the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development adopted by 193 countries at the UN General Assembly on September 25, 2015.
1. The Constitution of the Republic of Kazakhstan.
2. The Code of the Republic of Kazakhstan “On Marriage (Matrimony) and Family”.
3. The Labor Code of the Republic of Kazakhstan.
4. The Budget Code of the Republic of Kazakhstan.
5. The Code of the Republic of Kazakhstan “On Public Health and Health Care System”.
6. The Law of the Republic of Kazakhstan “On State Guarantees of Equal Rights and Equal Opportunities of Men and Women”.
7. The Law of the Republic of Kazakhstan “Concerning Prevention of Domestic Violence”.
8. The Law of the Republic of Kazakhstan “On Amendments and Additions to Some Legislative Acts of the Republic of Kazakhstan on Combating Domestic Violence”.
9. The Law of the Republic of Kazakhstan “On Minimum Social Standards and Their Guarantees”.
10. The Law of the Republic of Kazakhstan “On Education”.
11. The Law of the Republic of Kazakhstan “On State Educational Accumulative System”.
12. The Law of the Republic of Kazakhstan “On State Youth Policy”.
13. The Law of the Republic of Kazakhstan “On the Rights of a Child in the Republic of Kazakhstan”.
14. The Law of the Republic of Kazakhstan “On Physical Culture and Sports”.
15. The Law of the Republic of Kazakhstan “On Culture”.
16. The Law of the Republic of Kazakhstan “On Public Employment”.
17. The law of the Republic of Kazakhstan “On Pension Provision in the Republic of Kazakhstan”.
18. The Law of the Republic of Kazakhstan “On State Social Benefits for Disability and Loss of a Breadwinner and by Age in the Republic of Kazakhstan”.
19. The law of the Republic of Kazakhstan “On Special State Benefits in the Republic of Kazakhstan”.
20. The Law of the Republic of Kazakhstan “On State Allowances for the Families with Children”.
21. The Law of the Republic of Kazakhstan “On State Targeted Social Aid”.
22. The Law of the Republic of Kazakhstan “On Compulsory Social Insurance”.
23. The Law of the Republic of Kazakhstan “On Special Social Services”.
24. The Law of the Republic of Kazakhstan “On Social Protection of Disabled Persons in the Republic of Kazakhstan”.
25. The Law of the Republic of Kazakhstan “On Social and Medical Pedagogical Correctional Assistance for Children with Disabilities”.
26. The Law of the Republic of Kazakhstan “On Trade Unions”.
27. The Law of the Republic of Kazakhstan “On Public Councils”.
current strategic and program documents:
1. Decree of the President of the Republic of Kazakhstan № 205 as of March 1, 2016 “On approval of the State Program for the Development of Education and Science in the Republic of Kazakhstan for 2016 - 2019”.
2. Decree of the President of the Republic of Kazakhstan № 176 as of January 15, 2016 “On Approval of the “Densaulyk” State Program for the Development of Healthcare in the Republic of Kazakhstan" for 2016 – 2019”.
3. Decree of the President of the Republic of Kazakhstan № 648 as of September 24, 2013 “On the State Program for Combating Religious Extremism and Terrorism in the Republic of Kazakhstan for 2013-2017”.
4. Decree of the President of the Republic of Kazakhstan № 874 as of August 1, 2014 “On Approval of the State Program for Industrial and Innovative Development of the Republic of Kazakhstan for 2015 - 2019”.
5. Decree of the President of the Republic of Kazakhstan № 110 as of June 29, 2011 “On the State Program for the Development and Functioning of Languages in the Republic of Kazakhstan for 2011 – 2020”.
6. Strategic plans of state bodies.
The main directions of the Concept will be monitored in terms of its target indicators. The implementation of the Concept will be assessed on the basis of accomplishment of its goals and objectives.
The provisions of the Concept will be implemented in stages through the Action Plan approved by the Government of the Republic of Kazakhstan. The Government of the Republic of Kazakhstan, on an annual basis, will submit a consolidated report on the progress of implementation of the Concept to the President of the Republic of Kazakhstan. In addition, the National Commission will hear central and local executive bodies regarding the implementation of the Concept at its quarterly meetings.